The current report concerns Deliverable D3.1 Desk research. The report is a first guide for the Consortium Beneficiaries and EDU-ARCTIC itself, as an EU funded Project, on the EDU-ARCTIC’s Program, where the social and educational point of view is the key objective of Work Package 3. In particular, the report provides guidance on understanding Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) basic skills as well as labour market and scientific environment needs. In addition, it aims to assist the understanding of the current approaches in methods of encouraging young people to pursue careers in STEM, labour market needs in the field of science and STEM professions, relevant policies, strategies, programmes, objectives and recommendations.
The report is based on the results gathered from the recent reports of many European institutions that focus on education in STEM; especially, science as well as certain specific key competencies. The aforementioned reports include a comprehensive review of the scientific literature, documents relating to national policies and international research results.
There are eight key competences set out at an EU level1. They consist of combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are being considered as necessary for personal fulfilment, development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment:
- Communication in the mother tongue;
- Communication in foreign languages;
- Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology;
- Digital competence;
- Learning to learn;
- Social and civic competences;
- Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship;
- Cultural awareness and expression.
The current report does not include all the above mentioned key competences. It is only focused on STEM, and mainly science education (SE). The above given competences in science are solid part of the Reference Framework.
To a large extent, this EDU-ARCTIC Desk research is based on information stemming from the following reports:
- SCIENCE EDUCATION for Responsible Citizenship - Report To The European Commission Of The Expert Group On Science Education (2015), http://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_science_education/KI-NA-26-893-EN-N.pdf;
- Efforts To Increase Students’ Interest In Pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering And Mathematics Studies And Careers - National Measures taken by 30 Countries – 2015 Report, C. Kearney, http://www.dzs.cz/file/3669/kearney-2016-nationalmeasures-30-countries-2015-report-28002-29-pdf;
- Description Of STEM Knowledge Networks In Europe (2016) http://onderwijs.vlaanderen.be/sites/default/files/atoms/files/Description%20of%20STEM%20knowledge%20networks%20in%20Europe.pdf;
- Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), Science and Technology (2013) – Report conducted by TNS Opinion & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Research & Innovation, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_401_en.pdf;
- Encouraging STEM studies. Labour Market Situation and Comparison of Practices Targeted at Young People in Different Member States (2015), http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/542199/IPOL_STU(2015)542199_EN.pdf;
- Skills For The Labour Market (2015) - European Semester Thematic Fiche, http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/themes/2015/skills_for_labour_market_20151126.pdf;
- A New Method to Understand Occupational Gender Segregation in European Labour Markets (2014), http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/documents/150119_segregation_report_web_en.pdf;
- Applying STEM Instructional Strategies to Design and Technology Curriculum (2014), http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/073/013/ecp12073013.pdf;
- International Standard Classification of Occupations, Structure, group definitions and correspondence tables, International Labour Office, Geneva, 2012, https://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/B30EE525-22DB-4C1B-B8D5-6D12934AF00A/0/isco08.pdf;
- The Supply of and Demand for High-Level STEM Skills, Evidence Report 77 (2013), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/302973/evidence-report-77-high-level-stem-skills_1_.pdf;
- Eurydice: Science Education in Europe: National Policies, Practices and Research. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, Brussels (2011), http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/133en.pdf;
- European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, Developing Key Competences at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union (2012), http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/145en.pdf,
Some further reports are equally being cited for further reference.
The final part of the Desk research presents the results of the CAWI Survey (Computer Assisted Web Interview) that has been issued among the Consortium Beneficiaries. The prepared questions form one of the key sources on which it was prepared and a valid point in the broad subject of STEM among the consortium Beneficiaries. CAWI has been prepared in English.
This Desk research focuses on the understanding of STEM among the Beneficiaries and helps to achieve the objectives as set out within the Work Package 3 – Preparatory of EDU-ARCTIC Program. This Desk research is the first step for the preparation of recommendations for the EDU-ARCTIC program. It stresses the needs and approaches in STEM education at national and EU level. It also provides useful literacy for the Beneficiaries, which is needed for the proper program development of the EDU-ARCTIC program. Materials presented in this document, together with the project's D3.1 Desk research EDU-ARCTIC No 710240 Deliverable 3.2 Report on requirement analysis (due in month 4) will be further analysed and used for preparation of the Deliverable 3.3 Recommendations for EDU-ARCTIC Program.